Unfortunately, it allowed fundamentalist Muslim leadership to alienate Muslims and commit atrocities against Hindus in Mopla, now the Malabar district of Kerala, on Aug1, 1921. Dr. Annie Beasant records the following in her report titled "Malabar's agony" in New India, dated 29 Nov 1921, "that from that date august 1, onwards thousands of the forbidden war-knives were secretly made and hidden away and on August 20, the rebellion broke out; Khilafat flags were hoisted on police stations and Government offices, when one of the muslim leader of this movement, Maulana Modini called the looting and killing of Hindus and military necessity". This inhuman defending of the barbaric Mopla atrocities prompted Annie Beasent to comment bitterly: Men who consider it "religious" to murder, rape, loot, to kill women and little children, cutting down whole families, have to be put under restraint in any civilized society. This was the very first incident of communal riots and terrorism in the sub continent, committed by the Muslims in the name of Islam under the slogan of Jihad.
Furthermore, the sub-continents Muslims were the first on globe to demand the partition of India on religious ground and formation of Islamic state, on two-nation theory. The poverty and social disaster remained the fate of Muslim religious minority in Indian continent, being in power as minority to rule on majority of Hindu community for more than two hundred years but still this Muslim minority ever remained emotional on religious issues. When other Muslim world always ignored them and even feared to support their demand of independent state of Pakistan on any international forum. The Muslim leaders always looked upon the rich oil Muslim states after formation of Pakistan in 1947 and even pleaded their religious sects teachings for their financial aids and vested interests, which never seemed deem fit according to the cultural and social values of the subcontinent Muslims. This was the major reason that Muslim sects establishment was more in India than any other Muslim country on globe. This race to establish the different sects of Islam in Pakistan, moved some religious leaders to follow the terror organizations, rooted in other Muslim states and to prove the terror as per religious teachings of Islam. The moderate Muslims witnessed that these Pakistani Muslim religious leaders tried to prove monarchy and one-man rule of dictatorship not contrary to the Islamic values when Islam afforded the equal rights to slaves and masters.
The strong emotional support to PLO have been ever remained on priority agenda of Pakistani Muslim religious leaders when PLO leadership always preferred the better bilateral relations with Hindu majority neighboring state of India.
The concept of Jihad was very firstly used by the Egyptian Muslim organization against their government, terming it not to be following the true teachings of Islam in Egypt. The PLO used the slogan of Jihad against the Israel too as the Muslims of Pakistan adopted it decades ago in sepoy revolt of 1857 and Khilifat movement in 1921. The Iranian Muslims used the same weapon of Jihad against the emperor of Iran to take over the powers. Its very amazing and surprising that Muslims of Pakistan who hailed the Muslims of Egypt, Palestine and Iran on practice of jihad against the governments never imagined to use the same against the military dictators in Pakistan but supported them to crush the democratic values in Pakistan and always tried to use the back door to share powers with dictators in Pakistan.
The terms of particular conception very firstly appeared in Pakistan and Egypt by some religious leaders like this;
S.A.A. Maududi, The Amir of Jamat Islami Pakistan said on "Jihad in Islam" at Lahore, in 1991, that "Islam wishes to destroy all States and Governments anywhere on the face of the earth which are opposed to the ideology and program of Islam. Islam requires the earth, not just a portion, but the whole planet." And that God's Law (Shariah) should be enforced in the world "by force of arms." Truth cannot be confined within geographical borders. "The allegiance of a Muslim does not rest on his domicile in the country which is his, but on the faith to which he belongs ... wherever there is the rule of Islam, there is his own country."
Like wise - Shayk Muhammad Abu Zahra, Egyptian member of the Academy of Islamic Research said, "Jihad has been decreed to repel aggression and to remove obstructions impeding the propagation of Islam in non-Islamic countries."
Now lets discuss this word Jihad which is often heard and associated with the acts of certain individuals, claiming to act in the name of Islam, is the Arabic word: Jihad. Other Commonly Used Spellings: JIHAAD, it is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive for a better way of life. The nouns are Juhd, Mujahid, Jihad, and Ijtihad. Its significance plays an extremely crucial role in the image of Islam. But what does this so widely known word mean? Jihad has a great significance in the lives of Muslims. Like any language, Arabic has unique words, which have a particular meaning, which cannot be translated precisely. The best translation known for such a word is the following: a sincere and noticeable effort (for good); an all-true and unselfish striving for spiritual good.
Jihad as presented in the Quran and any of the other scriptures implies the striving of spiritual good. This Jihad particularly involves change in one's self and mentality. It may concern the sacrifice of material property, social class and even emotional comfort solely for the salvation and worship of God ALONE. As a result, one who practices Jihad will gain tremendously in the Hereafter*.
"The Hereafter is far better for you than this first (life.)"(93:4)
"Say, "O my people, do your best, and so will I. You will surely find out who the ultimate victors are." Certainly, the wicked will never succeed."(6:135).
The Jihad involves noticeable effort for righteousness. This means that the effort concentrated in the Jihad is a step in the true and ultimate path of Islam; the effort imposed on one's self. Thus Jihad is solely individual, self-centered and self-interested. This effort is only the doing of good for salvation and pardon of God. The Quran points this out in the following verse:
"The day will come when every soul will serve as its own advocate, and every soul will be paid fully for whatever it had done, without the least injustice." (16:111).
"The day will come when each soul will find all the good works it had done brought forth. As for the evil works, it will wish that they were far, far removed. GOD alerts you that you shall reverence Him alone. GOD is Compassionate towards the people. " (3:30).
In respect to the above Quranic verses, God tells the believers that all acts will reflect the soul of there. And Examples of this Jihad would be to exceed in the sincere act of good deeds (to frequent the mosques that worship God alone more often; to study the scripture in detail, to help the poor and the orphans, to stand for people's right for freedom, be equitable, never bear witness false testimony, frequent and stay in good terms with friends and neighbors, etc.) and the restraining of the doing of sins (to commit adultery, to steel, to lie, to cheat, to insult people, to gossip, etc.);
"As for those who lead a righteous life, male or female, while believing, they enter Paradise; without the slightest injustice." (4:124).
This Quranic verse highlights the meaning of Jihad and its role. It has also mentioned the importance of the sincerity when it is practiced. Jihad emphasizes on the individual. Say,
"O my people, do your best, and so will I. You will surely find out who the ultimate victors are." Certainly, the wicked will never succeed."(6:135).
Jihad also includes the striving and establishing of justice. Before one can strive for justice in his community, justice must be one of his main religious and moral principles.
Jihad may also reflect the war aspects in Islam (Submission). The fighting of a war in the name of justice or Islam, to deter an aggressor, for self-defense, and/or to establish justice and freedom to practice religion, would also be considered a Jihad.
"You shall strive for the cause of GOD as you should strive for His cause. " (22:78).
This Quranic verse incites man to strive, in the cause of God. The cause of God is justice and freedom for all, keeping the Quranic principle
"NO COMPULSION IN RELIGION" (2:256) on top of the list.
Since this verse shows that God accepts only justice, fighting in the name of God is fighting in the name of justice. But, contrary to many people's interpretation, Jihad is anything but a holy war. In the light and essence of Islam (Submission) and the Quran, there is no war, which is holy; this, under any circumstances whatsoever. In fact the whole text of the Quran and the religion of Islam (Submission) revolves around the concept of peace, not war. To many people's ignorance, Islam (Submission) is also a word that shares the same root of the Arabic word Salaam meaning peace.
To Islam (Submission), war is unholy; Jihad must mean anything but holy war. In Brief, This word Jihad does not mean a holy war, for there is nothing holy about a war in Islam (submission). There are times when war is tolerated, permitted and even, in some case, to a point accepted, but never considered holy. Islam is a religion of peace, no matter what certain deranged individuals say or claim. Islam (Submission) revolves around the concept of peace.
"If they resort to peace, so shall you, and put your trust in GOD. He is the Hearer, the Omniscient."(8:61).
The other meanings of Jihad are: endeavor, strain, exertion, effort, and diligence, fighting to defend one's life, land, and religion. Jihad should not be confused with Holy War; the latter does not exist in Islam nor will Islam allow its followers to be involved in a Holy War. The latter refers to the Holy War of the Crusaders. Jihad is not a war to force the faith on others, as many people think of it. It should never be interpreted as a way of compulsion of the belief on others, since there is an explicit verse in the Qur'an that says:
"There is no compulsion in religion" Al-Qur'an: Al-Baqarah (2:256).
Jihad is not a defensive war only, but a war against any unjust regime. If such a regime exists, a war is to be waged against the leaders, but not against the people of that country. People should be freed from the unjust regimes and influences so that they can freely choose to believe in Allah. Not only in peace but also in war Islam prohibits terrorism, kidnapping, and hijacking, when carried against civilians. Whoever commits such violations is considered a murderer in Islam, and is to be punished by the Islamic state.
Even during wars, Islam prohibits Muslim soldiers from harming civilians, women, children, elderly, and the religious men like priests and rabies. It also prohibits cutting down trees and destroying civilian constructions.
In 1977 Walter Laqueur predicted accurately "the disputes about a detailed, comprehensive definition of terrorism will continue for a long time, they will not result in a consensus and they will make no notable contribution towards the understanding of terrorism."
Attempts to incorporate all the many manifestations of terrorism within a single definition were doomed from the start. The term "terrorism" has been applied across the whole spectrum of political violence, and over the centuries of history. It has been applied to times of war and of peace; to the actions of states, groups and individuals; to actions against liberal states and to actions against repressive states and dictatorships. To treat terrorism as a general concept separates the action from its context, and consequently from its intention and its justification.
When we discuss the general options of terror organizations, the history follows the state operated terrorism to snatch the will and end the voice of general people. The movements against the government remained equipped with terror acts to change the rule of law in countries. The terror was in form by the drug and land mafia syndicates to protect their illegal business in the state. We see the all forms of terrorism was curb able by the power of the law because that terrorism never have any ideology behind it but the recent terrorism in the world is put on the roots of one religious interpretation and theology.
After these discussions on the spirit of Jihad in Islam we witness that Muslims of subcontinent of India interpreted the word Jihad and its concept very differently from the teachings of Islam. Now again this slogan of Jihad is being used to protect and practice terrorism under Islamic teachings, which is not very new concept when we discuss the Khilafat movement in 1921 in India.
Its easy to curb state operated terrorism and harboring terrorism but it needs more effective measures to curb terrorisms from individuals and groups who move terrorisms in name of religion with interpretation of Jihad to their own concepts. Its easy to calm down the guns and tanks of terrorist states but its difficult to end the suicide bombers who get ready to sacrifice their lives on the sermon of one religious leaders, very expert to ignite his religious emotions and to exploit the religious theology.
Therefore if we have to win the war against this Muslim faction, using the weapon of Jihad as holy war in shape of terrorism through the illiterate individuals of Muslim community. Its need of time to approach the majority Muslim religious leaders around the world to come on international media as a campaign and war to express the true concept of Jihad which is absolutely different from which some individuals are led by to commit suicide and high jacking to kill the innocent people on globe.
If such measures are not adopted to put hold on these undue concept of Jihad, we shall never be able to stop the people of Afghanistan to visit and perform religious rituals on the graves of dead terrorist and treat them as their religious heroes. As such graves of terrorists shall be stoned in cemeteries of other Muslim states in the world, the task to end terrorism shall be more and more difficult.
Nazir S Bhatti.