Miguel Zapater Cornejo.
School bullying, or bullying, is one more of manifestations of violence in current society, and due to its effects in children and above all in adolescents-in-training, has sensitized schools, families and society against it and has provoked Ministry of Education and Culture to decree 74 measures for removing it.
As many others forms of violence the origin of this one comes from the fact that human nature is not naturally good, but perfectible by means of education. Hence one of the first reasons to reduce or eliminate violence includes particular attention to education. Education consists essentially of acquiring habits, i.e., virtues, competences, in order to give the person a second nature. The specific and proper aim of education is the perfection of human faculties, training man to act the right way. But to fulfill this purpose education has to be comprehensive, and encompass all the capacities and dimensions of person, from physical educations to spiritual or religious one if it is desired, and also the education of cognitive skills (senses, mind, memory, creative imagination), the sensitive desire (feelings, emotions and passions), the superior desire or will with its different acts and virtues (prudence, strength, justice and temperance), all of them the basis of moral education. At least, from the classic Greece until de seventies of the last century, moral education has been a priority in school, not because of will is more nobly than intelligence, but because “if will is not good it does not matter others faculties to be so, taking into account that their use depends on will itself”. We live today in a very complex society, with a recent crisis of values, the emergence of new technologies and their premature use by children and adolescents, and the multiple risks for their formation. Therefore, it is indispensable to insist, more than before, in youngsters’ moral education in different stages and successive phases they move through in their development; and those phases are:
First stage: from birth to age 3, a period of breeding. It corresponds to the moral of functional disciplines (everything related to nurturing, sleeping, washing, bladder/bowel control), and means a first submission to an order of societal moral. This stage is particularly important for structuring the child’s brain, by means of impressions from the outside world through the senses. It is therefore important to create a suitable family atmosphere. The genetic basis is modified by the number and quality of sensations child receives.
Second stage: from age 3 through 6 or 7 years of age. This is the stage of the moral of good manners, the moral of habits, and among them, values. Obedience is considered as the first of virtues, not referred now to functional disciplines like the previous stage. It relies, at the same time, on submission to the orders given and to prohibitions established, always in a reasonable way, after the age of 4 or 4 and a half. The child’s love for their parent rests on confidence and admiration. Their moral education is made easier to a great extent when home and school offer the warmth and friendliness and the good examples they need.
Third stage, from age 6 or 7 through 11 or 12 years of age. This is the stage of the moral of norms and rules. Children have to accept behavior rules whose sense and significance they begin to understand, and perform them playing. It is different from the previous stage, due to not being a compulsory demand, but being based on a standard considered as good and valuable for everybody. Its virtues or values are loyalty, mutual aid, and above all, justice as their central concept. This is the moment to begin learning School Regulations, local laws, those of their autonomous community, the Spanish constitution, the Universal Declaration of the Rights of the Man, and also for believers, the Commandments of God’s Law, even though these have a different origin.
Forth stage: from age 11 through 16 or more years of age. It is the stage of the moral of “self”, personal, autonomous or post-conventional moral. This is the difficult age (preadolescence and adolescence), due to great changes happening in their bodies and minds. Is a moral of sentiments, resting on the love to good; virtues or values come together now around the sentiment of honour. Some of these values they try to imitate through exemplary lives are self-sacrifice, sincerity, compassion, heroism, courage, respect for a man’s word when it is given. The passage of the moral of rules or conventional in autonomous one can have a critical point, that of not to believe in the conventional criteria of previous moral, but without finding out an alternative, and so parents and teachers have to be vigilant to provide the aid required in order they can build being mature, prudent, sensible and responsible life projects.
And for this to happen schools at every stage of the education system must satisfy psychological and basic needs of affection, success, sense of life, and provide pupils with the necessary living conditions for practicing every value and norm, in order for them to become good habits, without neglecting monitoring, especially, for students with difficulties.
Miguel Zapater Cornejo.
Independent Forum of Opinion (Spain)
I want to inform what reasons Sindh Government and its concern department such price control committee or commissioner of Karachi always fail to control the prices of meat, this is very difficult job to perform or concern department act as carelessness or powerless to control meat prices.
Recently I bought meat from BURNS ROAD for Rs.950 per KG earlier some time back I bought meat from same shop Rs.860, what is Government control prices introduce and enforce, but very surprise no prices display in the shop.
I request to the concern authority make a surprise visit to know what prices meat being sold in Burns Road and what Government prices introduce which never enforce or encourage by these meat sellers, they how you protect and give benefit to common citizen against those BLACK SHEEP those over charging prices and consider its their born right to exercise.
How the meat prices will comes down or control which is the dream of middle class group and in the inflation name all traders are over charging above the reasonable profit which is too injustice and hurting the middle class group but the question is when Government will awake and take immediate notice.
Roberto Grao Gracia
“Inclusas”, hospices or orphanages were places of welfare, most of them founded by the Church in the XVIII Century, where needy children, abandoned by their parents and delivered to those Institutions were welcomed and brought up.
The name “inclusa” comes from an imagine of the Virgin Mary: Our Lady of Inclusa, which dominated the home for foundlings in Madrid, and was brought in the XVI Century from Dutch island of L’Ècluse (lock –“esclusa”-). The most developed of them were in Madrid, Santiago, Calahorra, Zaragoza, Bilbao, etc.
The aim of these institutions was to avoid infanticides and save the mothers’ honour, and so they admitted children borne illegitimately and orphans due to their father’s death or their lack of interest in them, and with mothers in extreme poverty.
When children were abandoned anonymously, these institutions disposed of portals open to the street. There was a person in charge of getting the foundlings who stayed permanently in a room close to the portal and came immediately when the bell or whatever other signal rang, to pick up the child. No questions were made about parents’ identity. Clothes and money for the child were already received, and the will of who leaved the child was fulfilled.
The person in charge of the reception on the rotatory device of the portal, wrote down the hour, the day and the year when the child was accepted and straightaway carried them to the lounge destined to baptisms. After cleaning them and clothing properly, put them in the pertinent cot. Foundlings was pushed an identifying collar with the year they have arrived at the Inclusa. They were usually named Foundling. Some people called them “inclusers” in a contemptuous way.
Inclusas disposed of nursing mothers for breastfeeding the foundlings. They had the duty of rearing the foundlings were given to them, always no more than two. They also helped the institution washing and cleaning up the children room, the infirmary, the dressing room and the bedroom, besides the laundry. Children were also given to nursing mothers living outside of the inclusa.
Infant mortality in Spain during the XVI, XVII and XVIII Centuries, as in the whole of Europe, was in general very high; it could rise easily as high as 30 or 40 per cent of living births. But mortality soared for the children in inclusas; for instance, of the 2446 children gathered up by Zaragoza Inclusa between 1786 and 1790 only survived 200; around the same time, 610 children were collected in Logroño and Vitoria and 400 died; of 164 picked up in Huesca, 115 died, and so on.
This terrifying mortality was due to several causes: there were very few inclusas, and the long and difficult way to got there made babies to arrive exhausted and irretrievable. Another factor was the bad quality and circumstances the nursing mothers outside the inclusa had, because nobody assessed them and besides they usually worked for a low pay which didn’t cover the children expenses. One more reason was that the inclusa did not provide clothes for the foundlings, and taking into account the subsequent damage and scarcity, many women chose not to apply for this job, even though they could have breastfed and taken care of them.
Anyway, in spite of all failures they suffered, was it not a more honest, careful and respectful way of proceeding with unborn children than to be aborted, i.e., killed in the womb of their mother as is currently happening? Why this beneficial caring for children got lost? Why inclusas did not recover?
To be sure, the bloody and fierce persecution against catholic people which took place during the 1936-39 Civil War dealt a fatal blow to these institutions, and so gradually disappeared from the whole society, without nobody attempted to save them. Perhaps, it might be the time to recover them as a way to avoid the current genocide of abortion, because in addition to kill thousands of innocent human beings, produce high profits for companies engaged in this business.
Roberto Grao Gracia.
Independent Forum of Opinion (Spain
The research studies carried out by John B. Gurdon (Anglo-Saxon) and Shinya Yamanaka (Japanese) were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine. These two scientists are considered of being the fathers of cellular reprogramming. They have achieved to create cells that behave identically to embryonic cells, however, without having to destroy human embryos. The Swiss Academy declared that both Gurdon and Yamanaka have revolutionized the current knowledge of how cells and organisms are developed, which has led to the perfection of the absurd methods of diagnosis and therapy.
Jhon Bertrand Gurdon, professor of the Zoology Department of the University of Cambridge, admitted of feeling extremely honored for such a spectacular privilege.
Moreover, Shinya Yamanaka discovered the so called “induced pluripotent stem cells” (iPS), which have the same proprieties of the embryonic ones and are able to turn into whatever other type of body cell. He asserted that he will continue to conduct research in order to contribute to society and medicine. For him that is a duty.
Yamanaka created four types of genes that supply cells with their pluripotentiality, in other words, the same capacity that embryonic stem cells have. If implanted in differentiated cells, for example of skin, they become pluripotent stem cells. The iPS supply a vast amount of plasticity just as embryonic stem cells do, however, without requiring the extermination or cloning of human embryos, since the initial cells can be obtained from the same patient. In this aspect, these cells have the same status as adult stem cells do, with the advantage of their versatility.
The dilema that has been stirred by the iPS is being resolved due to recent studies carried out by Leisuke Kaji (Universidad de Edimburgo) and Andreas Nagy (Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital of Toronto).
The created iPS perennially retain their pluripotentiality. There is still the need of research to be conducted concerning the control of the difference between these cells in order for them to create the tissue that is necessary for each case. As Kaji affirms in “The Guardian”, it is a step towards the practical use of reprogrammed cells in the field of medicine, which could eventually lead to eliminating the need of counting on human embryos as the main source of stem cells.
The Episcopal Subcommittee for the Family and Defense of Life of the Episcopal Conference, beliefs that no Catholic could support practices such as abortion, euthanasia or the production, freezing and/or manipulation of human embryos.
Independent Forum of Opinion (Spain)
Hem Raj Jain
Sub:- (i)- India was made India by Britishers (ii)- Secularism, socialism and rule-of-law is the only solution for India (iii)- Without coming-of-age of Jainism (which presently seems unlikely), Hindu-rashtra impossible
After Modi of Hindutva forces came to power in 2014 and especially after huge victory of BJP in 2017 U.P elections and after expected sure victory of BJP candidate in coming presidential election the opposition political parties and commentators have started expressing fear that India may give-up secularism and may constitutionally usher into Hindu-rashtra. But this fear is unfounded and overestimated as explained below:-
(1)- If history is any indication then Hinduism is simply incapable of centralized rule. [(i)- First in ~ 300 – 400 B.C. almost all India level rule by Moryas (Chandragupt to Ashoka the Great) could not hold and gave way to Gupta and then to other dynasties (ii)- Alauddin Khilji in 1301 attacked Ranthambor and won in my native State Rajasthan but no Hindu King came to his rescue with the result in 1303 Khilji attacked neighboring Chittor and won in a famous battle involving Rani Padmini (iii)- After Moghul rule established by Babur disintegrated by defeat of Humayun at the hands of Shershah Suri, Babur’s grandson Akbar the Great could consolidate Moghul rule practically in all of India but Rana Pratap after defeat in 1527 of his grandfather Rana Sangha could not consolidate Hindu rule in India (iii)- In third battle of Panipat in 1761 the Marathas were promised support by Hindus (Rajputs, Jats, Sikhs etc) but was not given due to history of Marathas (where they had been indulging in plunder / ‘Chauth-vasuli’ in these Hindu kingdoms) whereas invader Ahmad Shah Durrani was supported by Muslim rulers of Delhi, Avadh and Rohilkhand which resulted in crushing defeat of Marathas (iii)- Even in Karnataka where presently I live one soldier Haider Ali (and his son Tipu Sultan) could rise in ranks and could establish his rule in Mysore / Karnataka and all the Hindu rulers could be subdued by Haider Ali / Tipu. The Wadiyar king got Mysore back in charity only when Britishers defeated and killed Tipu in 1799]. Some people say that it is due to Brahmanism of Hinduism where Kshatriyas consider themselves inferior to Brahmins (hence spirituality of rulers not that exalted) therefore incapable of ruling in a centralized rule of vast territory. But I am not sure whether this theory is valid.
(2)- Throughout history of mankind the civilizations have been shaped mainly by saints and warriors. There is only one religion in India rather in whole of the world (which is nowadays called part of Hinduism) which is Jainism that had saint and warrior in one (its founder Teerthankar Rishabhdev / Adinath). This religion (as per info available at internet) had kings like Kharvela (of Odisha) who in ~ 3 century B.C ruled / conquered two third of India and even Chandragupt Morya in his last days came to Shravanbelgola (famous pilgrim centre of Digamber Jains) in Hasan district of Karnataka and became Jain monk and even Ashoka the great became Jain before adopting Buddhism. The Jainism certainly could have paved the way for Hindu-rashtra but presently it is in hopeless condition. Due to misguided religious leaders (the Muni Maharaj) of Jainism its followers are now less than 1 % of Indian population and these Munis preach such absurdities (even absurd food and life style) to Jains that it should not be a matter of surprise that Jainism has reduced itself to a level of mostly urban middle class religion (mostly traders, shopkeepers etc without having followers in tough professions like military, laboring class etc)
(3)- Hence remembering that (i)- Before advent of Britishers India was facing danger of massive bloodshed and disintegration. Undivided India (including Pakistan and Bangladesh) was made India by Britishers who ruled such vast territory by ‘rule-of-law like IPC, CrPC, CPC, Evidence Act etc which are still administering India and keeping it intact and (ii)- Hinduism is simply incapable of centralized rule - The fear of Hindu-rashtra is unfounded and overestimated because the day India becomes Hidu-rashtra it will start disintegrating.
(4)- At the same time the politicians and commentators who are raising the bogey of ‘imminent danger of Hindu-rashtra’ are dishonest people because they do not acknowledge that this situation has arrived for the simple reason that India has not taken seriously the secularism, socialism and rule-of-law. This is evident from some examples as given below:-
(i)- Restoration not done of legally expected Status-quo-ante of Babri Masjid which was demolished in 1992 in the presence of ‘Supreme Court Observer’ (ii)- Muslim Bangladesh was not assimilated in Hindu majority India though two nation theory (the foundation of India’s partition) failed in 1971 (iii)- Muslim PoK has not been retrieved by Hindu India and instead military (under protection of AFSPA, SPA etc) is training guns at civilians of Muslim Kashmiris (iv)- No prosecution done against Hindu guilty found by Sri Krishna Commission about 1992-93 communal riots in Mumbai / Maharashtra (while rightly asking for deportation / action against Dawood Ibrahim etc, the Muslim guilty of serial blasts which were direct fallout of said riots) (v)- Identification, tracking and deportation of illegal immigrants, mainly from Bangladesh have not been done (vi)- Discriminatory (especially against Muslims) Reservation Policy has not been quashed (vii)- No legal action has been taken against military officers about Gujarat 2002 riots regarding violation of section 130 & 131 Cr.P.C. (viii)- Unconstitutional cow-slaughter-ban laws have not been quashed (ix)- Constitutional obligation not discharged about public debt under Article 292 & 293 which has been taken more than constitutionally permitted by taking refuge under unconstitutional FRBM (x)- Rs ~ 1,000 Trillion tax out of black money not recovered (as mentioned at http://www.alwihdainfo.com/Now-India-bound-to-get-Rs--1000-Trillion-income-tax-as-Delhi-Police-steps-in_a31456.html ) though, when recovered, will solve most of the problems being faced by India especially arising due to economic hardship.
(5)- The Hinduism is also incapable of extended rule. Presently due to political turmoil the entire Muslim world is in problem where tens of millions of Muslims are bleeding and weeping profusely. India can easily, in the interest of providing succor to these unfortunate tens of millions of Muslims, can partly rule over Muslim world by taking a proactive role in UN as mentioned at http://www.alwihdainfo.com/India-should-clarify-with-USA-SaAr-about-ISIS-involvement-in-terrorist-attack-in-Iran_a55046.html but Hinduism is simply incapable of extended rule rather any rule (Muslims from Magnolia to NAME region came to India and could rule Hindus for ~ 1,000 years but Hindus cannot rule these Muslims, even partly through UN).
Therefore if these breast-beating politicians (mainly opposition) and commentators (who are unnecessarily lamenting about so-called imminent danger of otherwise politically nonviable Hindu-rashtra) are really serious about well-being of India then they instead should try to restore secularism, socialism and rule-of-law in India (as mentioned above) and which will restore their political fortunes also.