Biased against Christians, Hindus and Sikhs in the Pakistani Textbooks: Research by Professor Anjum James Paul

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Pakistani textbooks are biased against the religious minorities. These textbooks are the main source of intolerance, extremism and religious persecution against them. There is worst situation of biases and extremism in the textbooks published in the Urdu language. A picture of the textbooks is presented here that have been published in English language in various subjects. There is separate research on the textbooks published in various subjects in Urdu language which are full of poison against the religious minorities.
PART-I
BIASES AGAINST CHRISTIANITY AND CHRISTIANS IN PAKISTANI TEXTBOOKS
1. DESECRATION OF THE HOLY BIBLE
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
Grade-II
Third Print 2014
Code STE-495
Publisher: National Book Foundation Islamabad
There are many changes made by people in Bible and Taurah. But Quran is the only holy book which will remain unchanged. Allah Almighty Himself is its protector. (Page 117, Lines 10-12)
ENGLISH
GRADE -IV
2nd Edition 2014
Code No. STE-502
Publisher: National Book Foundation Islamabad
Unit 02
The Prophets علیھم السلام
Some Prophets were given Holy Books by the Almighty. The Prophets were sent for certain times and for certain areas. The Prophets educated the people. When a Prophet passed away, people again went to evil ways. They even alerted the Holy Books their Prophets had given them. Then Allah Almighty sent the next Prophet. (Page 13, lines 12-20)
2. TEACHING CHRISTIAN BELIEFS DIFFERENTLY
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
Grade-II
Third Print 2014
Code STE-495
Publisher: National Book Foundation Islamabad
Lesson 20
DEVELOPING A GOOD CHARACTER
Hazrat Isa علیہ السلام
Hazrat Isa علیہ السلام is Allah’s Prophet. His mother’s name was Hazrat Mariam رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنھا
When any sick person came to him, he treated that person and he became healthy, by order of Almighty Allah.
Almighty Allah gave him the book called ‘Bible’. When Hazrat Isa علیہ السلام asked to worship One Allah Almighty, the people became his enemies. They planned to kill him. Almighty Allah saved and lifted him up alive in the heavens.
Muslims believe that Hazrat Isa علیہ السلام will come back on earth before the day of judgment and he will fight against the evils.
There are many changes made by people in Bible and Taurah. But Quran is the only holy book which will remain unchanged. Allah Almighty Himself is its protector. (Page 117)
General Knowledge 2
Date of Printing Edition Impression
March 2013 Ist 2nd
Prepared & Published by: G.F.H. Publishers, Lahore
Unit 21
Developing A Good Character
Some vicious persons among his people imprisoned him in a house and planned to murder him but Allah Almighty lifted him to the sky alive. He علیہ السلام will revisit the world and preach the people the religion of Allah Almighty. (Page 127, Lines 8-11)
3. INSTIGATING STUDENTS TO MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN VIOLENCE
EVERYDAY ENGLISH 7
For Class VII
Edition Month & Year of Publication
First January- 2014
Publisher: Sindh Textbook Board, Jamshoro
UNIT 8 TARIQ BIN ZIAD
LESSON 3 REVIEWS
You play role of Tariq Bin Ziad as a general. Your friends in a group will act as Muslim soldiers. One of them will play the role of Christian King Roderick. Present your play to the class. You can bring suitable dresses and artificial equipment for the drama. (Page 56, Lines 1-5)
4. LETTING DOWN CHRISTIANS
EVERYDAY ENGLISH 7
For Class VII
Edition Month & Year of Publication
First January- 2014
Publisher: Sindh Textbook Board, Jamshoro
UNIT 8 TARIQ BIN ZIAD
LESSON 1 TARIQ BIN ZIAD AS A MILITARY HERO
DIALOGUE
USMAN: Teacher, could you tell me who Tariq Bin Ziad was?
TEACHER: Certainly! He was a hero of Islam.
USMAN: Did he fight any battle?
TEACHER: Yes, one of the most famous battles was fought in Spain and he had won that battle.
USMAN: With whom did he fight that battle?
TEACHER: The battle was between Muslims and Christians.
USMAN: Why did they fight against each other?
TEACHER: The ruler of Spain was a wicked man. He insulted one of his counts named Julian. Count Julian requested Musa bin Nusair, the Arab Governor to help him. Musa bin Nusair sent a small army of 7000 soldiers under the command of Tariq bin Ziad. Their number increased to 12000 later on. They had fought heroically against their enemy.
USMAN: Who was the King of Spain at that time?
TEACHER: It was king Roderick.
USMAN: How did Tariq bin Ziad command to soldiers?
TEACHER: The Muslim army sailed in boats under his command. They landed at the southern coast of Spain. Tariq bin Ziad ordered his soldiers to burn all the boats.
USMAN: Why did he order to burn all the boats? Why, I don’t understand.
TEACHER: Well! Some of his soldiers were scared. They thought in case they were defeated they would go back in their boats. But Tariq bin Ziad said “We are fighting a battle of life and death. If we die we shall die as martyrs but if we win we shall become heroes of Islam”. The battle was long and bloody. However, the Muslims fought bravely under the leadership of Tariq Bin Ziad and got victory.
(Pages 49-50)
LESSON 2 TARIQ BIN ZIAD A KIND RULER
DIALOGUE
USMAN: Could you tell me how much time Tariq Bin Ziad took to conquer Spain?
FATHER: The whole of Spain came under the Muslim rule within two years.
USMAN: What was the reason for taking such a short time?
FATHER: The reason was that the Muslim leader was a very brave and kind man.
USMAN: How many years did the Muslims rule over Spain?
FATHER: The Muslims rule over Spain for nearly eight hundred years.
USMAN: Good heavens! About eight centuries!
FATHER: Muslim rule lasted for eight centuries because of their sense of justice, equality, kindness, care and consideration for human rights. Slaves were set free. Jews and Christians were given full rights of their worship. The country became famous for beautiful cities and fine buildings.
USMAN: Did Tariq Bin Ziad give importance to education?
FATHER: He opened schools, colleges and libraries to educate and civilize the people.
USMAN: How was this possible to manage all these things?
FATHER: It was possible because of the courage and wisdom of the great general, Tariq Bin Ziad.
USMAN: Oh, really!
FATHER: The hill on which he landed in the south of Spain was named after him as Jabul-ul-Tariq. It means the hill of Tariq. Now it is known as Jibraltor.
USMAN: Thank you for giving me such useful information about our great Muslim general. He is a real role model for us.
Practice the given conversation with teacher.
TEACHER: For how many years did Muslims rule over Spain?
YOU: The Muslims ruled over Spain for nearly eight hundred years.
TEACHER: Were Christians and Jews given full freedom of worship?
YOU: Yes, they were given full freedom of worship.
Read the passage and give a suitable title.
Under the command of Tariq Bin Ziad, the Muslims had won the battle. The Christians had lost heart. As the Muslims marched through Spain, city after city opened its gates to them. Within two years the whole of Spain came under the Muslim rule. The Muslims ruled for 800 years. The Muslims brought their culture and learning to the European land. Thus, the dark age of Europe came to an end because of Islamic civilization and culture.
Title________________________ (Pages 51-52)
PART-II
BIASES AGAINST HINDU RELIGION AND HINDUS IN PAKISTANI TEXTBOOKS
1. DESECRATION OF THE PLACES OF WORSHIPS OF HINDUS
Textbook of
HISTORY 6
Second Edition 2013
ISBN 978-969-37-05567-6
Publisher: National Book Foundation Islamabad
Chapter No.3
MUSLIMS IN SOUTH ASIA-I
Debal: Muhammad bin Qasim reached Debal in the autumn of 711 A.D. He besieged the town which was strongly fortified. There was a large temple in the centre of the city with a red flag waving over it. The Muslims pulled down the flag by hurling stones on it with the help of catapult. Upon this, the Hindus were thoroughly demoralised and in the fight that followed, the Hindus were routed and the city fell to the Muslims. (Page 55, Lines 3-9)
The capture of Somnath is considered to be the crowning glory of his South Asian campaigns. The Shiva temple of Somnath in Gujrat Kathiawar was very famous throughout the country. In 1026 A.D, the Sultan rushed through Ajmer and suddenly appeared before the gates of Somnath. All neighbouring Rajput rulers gathered their forces to protect the temple but they were defeated. The Sultan entered the temple and with one blow shattered the idol into pieces. Sultan Mahmud died in 1030. A.D. (Page 57, Lines 11-17)
History 6
Year of Publication Edition Impression
Jan.2013 Ist Ist
Published by: Kitabistan Publishing Company
38- Urdu Bazar, Lahore
Chapter No.3 Muslims in South Asia-i
There was a temple of Hindus in the middle of Debal on the top floated there a red flag. It was the belief of the Hindus that none could harm them till the flag there. As soon as the Muslims used “catapult”, a stone hit the flag and it felt down. It discouraged the Hindus. After this, forces of Raja came out of the fort and started fighting. The Muslims fought boldly and entered over the fort captured the city. Raja Dahir fled away from the battle field and was killed later on.( Page 32, Lines 31-32 & Page 33, Lines 1-6)
Inspite of small force, he always used to return to his country after the conquest. Somnath was a famous sacred temple of the Hindus. Hindus believed that who would attack Somnath, himself will annihilated. When Muhmood Ghaznavi came to know of, he attacked Somnath and conquered it. This temple had countless treasures. The figures of gods were studded with the jewels of diamonds, with pearls, gold and silver. Various Rajas of Northern India with their great forces came to protect this temple but failed. The worshippers offered huge wealth of rubbies so that the idols of Somnath might not broken but Sultan replied, “I am breaker of idols and not the seller of idols”. (Page 34, Lines 16-26)
2. LETTING DOWN HINDU RELIGION
Social Studies 4
Date of Printing Edition Impression
Jan.2014 Ist 2nd
Publisher: Gohar Publishers,11-Urdu Bazar Lahore
Chapter 2
HISTORY: THE WAY WE WERE
His father’s name was Mehta Kalu who was Hindu by caste. Baba Guru Nanak was not impressed by the teachings of the Hinduism. He founded a new religion Sikhism. The teachings of baba Guru Nanak are found in “Guru Granth Sahib”. It is the holy book of Sikhism.
Note: Please write;
1. Hindu
2. Hindu religion
3. Sikh religion
4. Baba Guru Nanak
(Page 28, Lines 6-13)
History 7
Date of Printing
March 2013
Publisher: Al- Faisal Nashran,
Ghazni Street Urdu Bazar, Lahore
CHAPTER 3:
MUGHAL EMPIRE: SOCIO-CULTURAL CONDITIONS
SIKHISM
Founder of Sikhism, Baba Guru Nanak was born in 1469 AD, at Nankana Sahib in Punjab. His father Mehta Kalu was a Hindu. Teachings of Hinduism could not impress Baba Guru Nanak. He founded a new religion Sikhism.
(Page 68, Lines14-20)
Pakistan Studies 9
Date of Printing Edition Impression
Mar. 2013 Ist Ist
Publisher: G.F.H. Publishers, Lahore
Chapter 2: Making of Pakistan
Background of Pakistan Resolution
The Muslims wanted to secure themselves against the domination of Hinduism. The Hindu parties were making demand for Ram Raj. Hinduism was constantly trying to merge Islam into it like other issues. If the united sub-continent had got freedom, it would have been a permanent form of Hindu Authority because modern democratic system believes in majority government. It was a must to get rid of the dominance of the Hindus and it was possible only if the sub-continent was divided. (Page 20, Lines 27-31 & Page 21, Lines 1-3)
3. INSTIGATING STUDENTS TO MUSLIM- HINDU VIOLENCE
History 6
Year of Publication Edition Impression
Jan.2013 Ist Ist
Published by: Kitabistan Publishing Company
38- Urdu Bazar, Lahore
Chapter No.3 Muslims in South Asia-i
PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
Students present in the class, the conversation between Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi and worshippers of Somnath. (Page 44, Lines 17-19)
4. PROVOKING RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE
History 7
Date of Printing
March 2013
Publisher: Al- Faisal Nashran,
Ghazni Street Urdu Bazar, Lahore
CHAPTER 3:
MUGHAL EMPIRE: SOCIO-CULTURAL CONDITIONS
4. Confrontation with Hindus:
Because of Akbar’s pro-Hindu policies, Hindus became so fearless that they started demolishing tombs and mosques, and constructed temples in their place. Muslims were facing hard times in Hindu majority areas. Muslims were not able to observe their religious obligations freely. Persistence of their faith could cost their lives. In this situation, Hazrat Mujadid opened a front against Hindus and draw the attention of court officials of Akbar and then to Jahangir toward these excesses. In the result of these efforts by Mujadid Alif Sani R.A, Islam prospered in the age of Jahangir. After them came the practical Muslim rulers like Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb who further enhanced the following of Shariah. (Page 68, Lines 3-13)
CHAPTER 4: MUGHAL EMPIRE: DISINTEGRATION
In Judhpur, Ajit Singh revolted against Mughal rule. He expelled the officials and vexed the Muslims. They prohibited the slaughter of cow, destroyed the mosques and turned them into temples. He had full support of the Rajput Raja of Udaipur and his father-in –law. Raja jai Singh was also helping him. Emperor Bahadur Shah I issued orders of strict action against Rajputs and appointed his son Prince Muhammad Azeem as commander of military excursion against them. Many Rajputs were killed in this battle and their chiefs took refuge in mountains. Temples erected by them were torn down. (Page 90, Lines 4-12)
5. LETTING DOWN HINDUS
Textbook of
HISTORY 6
Second Edition 2013
ISBN 978-969-37-05567-6
Publisher: National Book Foundation Islamabad
Chapter 2
THE ARYAN ERA
In caste system, Hindu society was divided into______classes.
(a) Three (b) Four (c) Five (Page 50, Lines 4-5)
Chapter No.3
MUSLIMS IN SOUTH ASIA-I
An important section of the population of Sindh was Buddhists. They had grievances against the fanatic Brahman king Dahir. The oppressed Buddhists sought the help of Muslims. (Page 54, Lines17-19)
The army was further strengthened by a large number of Jats and Meds who were groaning under the oppression of the Hindu rajas. (Page 54, Line 23 & Page 55, Lines 1-2)
History 6
Year of Publication Edition Impression
Jan-2014 Ist Ist
Published by: Kitabistan Publishing Company
38- Urdu Bazar, Lahore
Chapter No.3 Muslims in South Asia-i
Sultan established a stable Muslim government in India and ended the rule of the Hindus. (Page 36, Lines 27-28)
He chastized severely the to Hindus, Rajputs and Khokhars. Nasir-ud-Din died in 1266 A.D. (Page 40, Lines 21-22)
Note: it must be ‘to the’.
Grade-VII
Second Edition 2014
Code STE-505
Publisher: National Book Foundation Islamabad
Chapter: 2
Mughal Empire Consolidation
He insisted that the Shari’a become the law of the land. The Hindu majority, known to be living according to the Hindu law, had to face Islamic law courts.
Note: The statement is about Aurangezeb. (Page 26, Lines 29-30)
Chapter 3
MUGHAL EMPIRE: SOCIO- CULTURAL CONDITIONS
He was against idol worship and condemned caste system. (Page 32, Line 8)
Chapter 5:
MUGHAL EMPIRE: ASCENDANCY OF THE BRITISH
At the same time the oppression of the Hindus made their lives unbearable. (Page 70, Lines 28-29)
This movement was also directed against the oppression of the Hindu Zamindars. He declared the country Dar-ul-Harab therefore Eid and Friday prayers could not be offered there. (Page 70, Line 31 & 71, Lines 1-2)
History 7
Date of Printing
March 2013
Publisher: Al- Faisal Nashran,
Ghazni Street Urdu Bazar, Lahore
CHAPTER 3:
MUGHAL EMPIRE: SOCIO-CULTURAL CONDITIONS
Muslim society was based on the principle of human equality and brotherhood. These principles were new for in Hindu society, because they were divided in a brutal caste system which condemned Sudras to a lowest status. Just and equitable system of Islam impressed the Hindus deeply. (Page 69, Lines 25-27 & Page 70, Line 1)
CHAPTER 4: MUGHAL EMPIRE: DISINTEGRATION
They appointed many Hindus on high posts who were busy in plundering.
(Page 98, Lines17-18)
British were planning to capture the Subcontinent from the very start. They joined forces with the opponents of Siraj-ud-Daulah. There were many Hindus among these dissidents. (Page 110, Lines1-3)
CHAPTER:5
MUGHAL EMPIRE: ASCENDANCY OF THE BRITISH
He tried to eliminate heresies and supported the farmers against suppressive behavior of Hindu landlords. (Page125, Lines18-19)
Empowering effect of this movement encouraged the Muslims to voice against the exploitation of Hindu landlords. (Page 125, Lines23-25)
HISTORY
Grade-VIII
First Edition 2014
Code 521
Publisher: National Book Foundation Islamabad
Chapter 4:
QUEST FOR POLITICAL SETTLEMENTS
Gandhi’s betrayal to the Muslims during the Khilafat movement was also one of the reasons. Many extremist Hindu movements were specially supported by Congress to dishonor the Muslim heroes. (Page 53,Lines 4-7)
Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) as the poet philosopher of the Muslims, realized that the Hindus and their leaders would never show any understanding towards the Muslims. (Page 57, Lines 28-29 & Page 58, Line 1)
In the eight provinces where the Congress made ministries, the rule was to promote Hindu Raj and religion. It was in fact Hindu Nationalism imposed on Muslims. The Muslims were forbidden to eat beef and punishment was awarded to those who slaughtered cows. Hindi was enforced as the official language. Azan was forbidden and noisy processions were organized to pass near the mosques at prayer times. All such sentiments of hatred caused riots which lead to thousands of killings. If the Muslims lodged complaints, the decision would always be in favour of Hindus. (Page 67, Lines 1-9)
BandeMatram:
This was the national anthem of Congress which was sung at the beginning of every official meeting to promote Hindu Nationalism. Some of its verses were derogatory to Muslims and Islam. Even then the Muslims were made to sing the song. (Page 67, Lines11-14)
Wardha Scheme: This philosophy was promoted by Gandhi to inspire the Hindu youth minds about the Hindu heroes and religious leaders.(Page 67, Lines 15-17)
Hindu-Muslim Riots: The policy of the Congress was to crush Muslims with power and authority. Organized attempts were made on the honour, property and lives of Muslims. The very existence of the Muslims was threatened by the atrocities of Hindus. (Page 67, Lines 30-31 & Page 68, Lines 1-2)
Chapter 5:
STRUGGLE FOR PAKISTAN
Hindu and British Reactions
The official name of the resolution was Lahore Resolution. However it was the Hindu newspapers which ironically coined the name Pakistan Resolution. They further explained that the Muslims wanted ‘the pure land’ as if the rest of India was ‘impure.’ The idea was appreciated by the Muslim masses and it became famous. The British were equally against the Muslim demand as it threatened the unity of India. (Page74, Lines 21-27)
He re-organized Muslim League, fought against the clever maneuvering of Hindus and dealt with the British in a tit-for-tat manner.
Note: The statement is about Quaid-e-Azam. (Page 83, Lines17-19)
Pakistan Studies 9
Date of Printing Edition Impression
Mar. 2013 Ist Ist
Publisher: G.F.H. Publishers
Chapter 1: Ideological Basis of Pakistan
In the beginning, he was the supporter of Hindu-Muslim unity but narrow mindedness and biased attitude of Hindus forced him to rethink that the Muslims should demand a separate country. (Page11, Lines 28-30)
Chapter 2: Making of Pakistan
Reaction to the resolution
The Hindu leaders began to express their views against the Resolution. The Resolution was ridiculed. Gandhi and the Hindus opposed the Resolution absolutely. (Page 22, Lines 23-25)
Chapter 3: History of Pakistan (Part-I)
While going to India, the Hindus destroyed official record. It caused enormous difficulties in office work. (Page 94, Lines 21-22)
Chapter 4: History of Pakistan (Part-I)
Negative Role of Hindu Teachers
After the establishment of Pakistan, the government failed to inculcate and create the spirit of Pakistani nationalism. On the other hand Pakistan’s opponent group succeeded in continuing their negative activities. Unfortunately, Bengali Muslims had always been backward in education than Hindus. Therefore, Hindu teachers were in majority in schools who tarnished the minds of new generation with the idea of Bengali nationalism. They prepared them to rebel against the ideology of Pakistan. It paved the way for getting separation from West Pakistan. (Page 126, Lines 5-12)
English 5
Dated
January 2014
Publisher: Apple Educational Press, Lahore
Unit 8: Father of the Nation
Quaid-e-Azam single handedly faced opponents like the British and the Hindus. (Page 65, Line 4)
PART-III
BIASES AGAINST SIKHS
HISTORY
Grade-VII
Second Edition 2014
Code STE-505
Publisher: National Book Foundation Islamabad
Chapter: 2
Mughal Empire Consolidation
In 1675, Aurangzeb publicly executed the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. (Page 27, Lines 3-4)
Chapter 5:
MUGHAL EMPIRE: ASCENDANCY OF THE BRITISH
The movement of Holy war was initially very successful but soon conspiracies began against Syed Ahmed, Maharaja Ranjit Singh plotted against him. (Page 70, Lines 14-16)
History 7
Date of Printing
March 2013
Publisher: Al- Faisal Nashran,
Ghazni Street Urdu Bazar, Lahore
CHAPTER 4: MUGHAL EMPIRE: DISINTEGRATION
Sikhs had to face many defeats during the reign of Jahandar Shah and their power dispersed. Sikhs remained a nuisance for Mughal government and caused them considerable losses. (Page 91, Lines 24-27)
7 RISE OF THE SIKHS, MARHATAS AND RAJPUTS:
Because of the poor governance of the Mughals, Sikhs looted the masses of Punjab for several years and also caused a great loss to the lives and property of Muslims. Even in this catastrophic situation, they did not try to take any corrective measures. (Page106, Lines16-20)
CHAPTER: 5
MUGHAL EMPIRE: ASCENDANCY OF THE BRITISH
At that time Punjab and NWFP (KPK) were ruled by Sikhs who became a nuisance for Muslim community. Syed Ahmad Shaheed resolved to take sword against them. (Page 125, Lines 1-4)

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