Terrorism: Historical, Political, Economic, Social and Religious factors and Implications for Pakistan and World: by Professor Yunis Khushi Advocate


Unfortunately, Pakistan is the most affected country with terrorism, but at the same time, it is also the most notorious for exporting terrorism to the whole world. The Pakistani nation has half awaken for the first time in 68 years and strongly felt the effect of religious extremism and terrorism and that too after sacrifice of 150 innocent children of Army Public School Peshawar. Currently, Pakistan is facing religious, sectarian, ethnic, and political violence and terrorism. The said incident has raised many questions for the thinking people: Who is responsible for promoting terrorism in Pakistan? What are the historical, political, economic, social, and religious factors and implications of terrorism on Pakistan and rest of the world? Will the present Pakistani political leadership be able to fight against terrorism? Will Pakistan have to live with its more than a hundred and ever increasing terrorist organizations? What price has Pakistan and world community paid for terrorism? What are the solutions to the problems of religious extremism and terrorism? This article will try to find answers to the above questions.
A. Definition of Terrorism: Majority of Pakistani intelligentsia, religious leaders, media personnel, and politicians has been confused about the definition of terrorism and they continue to be so even today. Many have been saying that Taliban were fighting Islamic Jihad for the protection of Islam and Pakistan because both Islam and Pakistan were under threat from their enemies i.e. Hanud-o-Yahud-o-Nasarra (Hindus, Jews, and Christians). There was also a confusion regarding who is martyr and who was not. The religious parties like Jamat-e-Islami and Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam claimed that Taliban who were killed in war against Pakistan Army were real martyrs and soldiers of Pakistan Army and policemen in die in this war or in suicide attacks by Taliban were not the martyrs. Former Chief of Jamat-e-Islami, Munawwar Hassan also said that a mass killing of non-Muslims and all those who opposed Nizam-e-Mustafa (liberals) was required for implementation of Islamic system of government. Support for Taliban and other terrorist groups at every level of society shows that the extremist mindset has been promoted so much that the terrorist groups have their supporters not only among people, but also among military, police, bureaucracy, judiciary, politicians etc. and the extremist parties have convinced many people that Islamic system will only be implemented by the extremist parties.
B. Confusion about War on Terror as to Whose War It Was?: The Pakistani politicians, religious leaders and many others have been claiming that the war on terror was an American war and Pakistan must get out of it at its earliest. But the billion dollar question is: If it was a not our war then why did Taliban and other terrorist groups kill more than 60,000 Pakistani citizens, police and army personnel in Pakistani cities like Karachi, Shikarpur, Lahore, Peshawar, Multan, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi and Islamabad etc. etc. Only after the Army Public School Peshawar terrorist attack, some politicians were convinced that it was our war because it was being fought against our citizens in our cities and towns.
C. Historical Factors of Terrorism: Although currently Islamic militancy is occupying major part of the world scene and attention, but other religions have also been and are being used for terrorism against people of opponent faiths, though the volume and magnitude of their terrorism could be different. For instance, some extremist Jews are using Judaism to violate the rights of the Palestinians, and they killed P M Yitzhak Rabin for making peace with Palestinian Liberation Organization; Extremist Hindu organizations like Bajrang Dal and Vishva Hindu Prashad (both are militant wings of Bhartiya Janta Party, and have gained new life after Narender Moodi’s coming to power) are persecuting Muslims and Christians in India. Extremist Hindus were responsible for killing Mahatma Gandhi because he wanted to have peace with Pakistan, and advocated the rights of Pakistan and Indian Muslims and other religious minorities.
Different religions were used for political and economic gains since the beginning of human civilization. Judaism was used even in the days of Prophet Moses for obtaining new lands and economic resources and for supremacy over infidels, the then Palestinians; Christianity was used against Arab Muslims in Crusades because European Christians did not want to pay Toll/rout taxes to Arab Muslims for conducting business with China, so Christians of Europe were united against Muslims of Arab Peninsula to wage Crusades; there was a time when there was no separation in Church and State and Church was so strong that it killed and burnt many scientists, intellectuals, philosophers and human rights activists for introducing new theories of Science and Philosophy; the sectarian violence (between Catholics and Protestants) in Europe caused killing of more than 25 million people and the hatred among Catholics and Protestants of Ireland is not fully over yet and if the people of Europe had not struggled for separation of Church and politics, the total population of Europe would have been eliminated several hundred years ago; Islam has been used for conquering Middle East, parts of Europe, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, many countries of Africa, Indian Sub-Continent, and Central Asia; and the philosophy of Hindutva is being used to suppress Muslims, Christians, believers of Jainism, Buddhism, and gain total control of Hindus over India and South and Far East Asia. The philosophy of Ghalba-e-Islam is being used to wage war against Hindus, Christians, Jews and all other religions to conquer India, Europe, America and rest of the world. The propagators of this philosophy want to overthrow all Arab Kingdoms because they are pro-West and are believed to be working against the interests of Muslim Ummah.
In the case of Islamic militancy, the early invasions and conquests by early Muslim Caliphs is praised to the sky in school syllabus. The school syllabus is full of hateful literature against non-Muslims and this was mostly done during the regime of Gen. Ziaul Haq. Historical books also praise the conquests by Mohammed Bin Qasim, Mehmud Ghazavi, Babar the first Mughal, Nadar Shah Durrani, and several other Muslim invaders. They are presented as heroes of Islamic history and often wrongly praised. For instance, Mahmud Ghaznavi who attacked India to loot wealth from the statues of Somnath, is praised as a “Mahmud bout-shikkan” (Mahmud the greatest statue-breaker). Second example is that of Aurangzeb Aalamgir, who was actually the most intolerant of the Mughal kings and was notorious for mass killings of Hindus, but in Pakistani syllabus and history books is depicted as the most humble, tolerant, hardworking and pious Mughal king who never took a penny from the government funds and ran his kitchen by doing calligraphy of Koran and sewing handmade caps. The truth of the matter is that to grab power, he jailed his father Shahjahan, killed all his brothers, and destroyed the eyes of his scholar bother Dara Shujjah with a hot iron rod only because Shahjahan, the father loved Dara Shujjah because his eyes were after the eyes of Shahjahan’s most beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal (Taj Mahal was built by Shahjahan in her memory). The Indian conquests by Muslim invaders that are praised in syllabus books left 8,000,000 (8 million) Hindus butchered, and 200,000 Hindus were killed in only one day when Nadar Shah Durrani fought the battle at Panipat.
That does not mean that only Muslims promote hatred against non-Muslims and other do not do so. People of all faiths talk to their children against other faiths and poison the minds of their next generations. For instance, Hindus tell their children that Muslims are very dangerous, unholy and dirty people, and that Christians are also very dangerous. The current persecution of Muslims and Christians is a kind of revenge of Muslim attacks on Hindu Civilization, and Christians are persecuted for destroying the fabric and social structure of Hindu culture by religion and civilization, upward social mobility of Dalits and their conversion to Christianity.
D. Political Factors: The political factors are as below:
D.1 Selfish & Corrupt Political Leadership and Role of Religious Parties: The consecutive political governments and military dictators constantly weakened state institutions for their political and economic gains. They preferred their personal, class, vested interests over the interests of the state and its people. The Pakistani rulers one after the other proved to be shortsighted and they could not foresee the serious negative implications of the religious extremism. The religious parties that were originally against the very creation of Pakistan, were allowed to become so strong after the creation of Pakistan that they began dictating the state their extremist agenda. Agitations, burning of public and private property by these parties were openly allowed and the law-enforcement agencies proved to be weak and silent bystanders. The feudal, military and civil bureaucracy and elite religious leaders joined hand to promote religious, sectarian, racial, provincial, ethnic, and caste-based extremism and intolerance to divide people so that they never become united to demand their rights and that the ruling elite could loot the national wealth, control political and economic resources as they wished. This is very unfortunate that the state created, supported and financed sectarian and terrorist groups like Taliban, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Sipah-e-Sahaba etc., but the writers, poets and intellectuals like Habib Jalib and Faiz Ahmed Faiz, who wrote and spoke for the rights of the people were jailed, tortured, killed, compelled to flee the country, and were also labeled as traitors, Russian and Indian agents and enemies of Islam and Pakistan. Ziaul Haq also flogged many journalists during his regime for raising voice for the rights of the masses.
D.2 Anti-Communism Policies of USA: The patronage of the United States of America to the religious parties also strengthened religious parties. USA supported these parties to promote religious extremism to block Communism. At that time the USA did not bother to think that Islamic extremism and terrorism could become a much bigger threat for the world peace and human civilization than Communism. In this regard, Zialul Haq and his leftovers like Nawaz Sharif proved to be extremely dangerous for Pakistan. In 1977, Gen. Ziaul Haq, an extremist Sunni, was especially brought to power by American CIA to topple Z. A. Bhuttos’ regime because USA was not happy with Bhutto’s socialist tendencies and pro-China politics, his efforts to form an Islamic block and use Black Gold (oil) as a weapon against the West, and initiation of the atomic plant to transform Pakistan into an atomic power to handle the security threats caused by India, which had never accepted the creation of Pakistan from day one. According to some reports Ziaul Haq had plans of becoming Ameerul Momneen (Caliph of the Muslim World), he wanted to conquer Afghanistan and then from there onward he had plans to conquer Central Asian States.
D.3 Afghan Jihad: The Russian Invasion of Afghanistan proved to be a golden opportunity for strengthening Ziaul Haq regime and a lavish support from USA and Saudi Arabia to promote religious extremism in Pakistan to fight Afghan Jihad. Mujahedeen (holy warriors) from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Turkey, Emirates, other parts of Middle East poured into Pakistan to be trained by ISI, with the help of American dollars and Saudi Riyals to fight against the Russian armies in Afghanistan. But majority of the recruits came from Pakistan because Jamat-e-Islami and other religious parties have always been major suppliers of youth ready to be Ghazi (Victorious) or Shaheed (martyrs). Jamat-e-Islami and other religious parties have always been known as “B” team of CIA and Army because they have always provided Mujahedeen to fight in Kashmir and Afghanistan. Also because religious parties of Pakistan do not have a strong popular base in masses so they dream to come to power with the help of Taliban. That is why these religious parties have always opposed army action against Taliban because students from their religious seminaries and militant youth wings are joining Taliban in large numbers. These parties were blue-eyed boys of Ziaul Haq of having ideological commonalities, and that is why they supported his military dictatorship, but Musharraf being an enlightened and moderate and anti-extremism, kept the religious parties at an arms distance.
Thus anti-communism policies of USA have been one of the major factors for promoting religious extremism and terrorism in Pakistan and many other Islamic and Christian countries like Philippines where they have vigilantes to kill communists fighting against the state and capitalist oppression.
D.4 Unresolved Kashmir and Palestinian Issues: Generally there is a feeling in the Muslim world that international community has not taken any serious interest to resolve the Kashmir and the Palestine issues and that West, in particular, has unjustly supported India and Israel and has caused suffering of the Kashmiris and the Palestinians. Thus it helped in generating hatred against the West, in general, and against Jews, Christians and Hindus in particular. Thus, a widespread recruitment of Mujahedeen from Pakistan and rest of the Muslim world. India is taking a revenge of infiltration of made in Pakistan mujahedeen fight in Kashmir against Indian forces. Russia has been supporting Northern Alliance against Afghan Taliban and Pakistan in Afghanistan because Russian and Central Asian States are not happy about the role played by Pakistan in fighting American war against Russia in Afghanistan. Afghanistan is also very active in carrying out terrorism in Pakistan with Indian support because it is not happy with Pakistani support for Afghan Taliban. Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan and other terrorist groups are labeled by Pakistani government officials as Afghan, Indian, Russian, American, Israeli, Iranian, Saudi, Uzbic, and Tajik agents. But none of the countries or TTP accepts or rejects this charge.
D.5 Separatist Movements of Baluchistan and Sindh: The sectarian and religious violence have added fuel to the fire but there are other forms of terrorism in Pakistan as well. MQM was formed by Ziaul Haq and his security establishment to weaken People Peoples Party. MQM has a very strong militant wing and it has been main culprit for disturbing peace of Karachi because its workers have taken up Bhatta (goon tax) collection, target killing as a profession and means of livelihood. MQM is blamed for running a campaign for a separate province named “Jinnahpur” for Urdu speaking community consisting of Karachi and Hyderabad regions. Some other nationalist parties of Sindh are unhappy about the invasion of Sindh by Urdu speaking community, Punjabis, Pathans, Kashmiris, and Baluchis. They are struggling for Sindhoo Desh (Sindh as a separate country for Sindhis and expulsion of other ethnic communities). Currently a war is going on between Awami National Party which is representing Pathans, MQM, Pakistan Peoples Party, Jamat-e-Islami and other parties including Sindhi Nationalist parties for a control over Karachi. They want to outdo their opponents in target killings and Bhatta collection. Baluch people are very unhappy about denial of their rights and have formed different militant groups for separation of Baluchistan from Pakistan and formation of Greater Baluchistan. They are reportedly being supported by India in this regard. Punjabis are being targeted by separatist Baluch parties as a revenge of persecution of Baluchis by Army, which is said to be dominated be Punjabis.
D.6 Politicized & Corrupted Law Enforcement Agencies, Judiciary, Bureaucracy, Dummy Parliament: The ruling elite has corrupted every state institution just for their personal and vested interests. The recruitments are done on recommendations and/or bribery instead of merit, so such officials cannot have any sympathies for the state, instead they would obey their masters or will multiply the money that they have paid as a bribe. Pakistan is the most unfortunate country because most of its politicians and government official are working against the interests of the state and its masses.
E. Economic Factors: Jihad brings in a lot of economic benefits. Mal-e-ghaneemat (wealth and women of the conquered nations) was distributed among attacking soldiers. This was being done by different tribes who were followers of different religions. The economy of early Muslims solely depended on war, therefore, jihad was a lucrative business. Ziaul Haq fought Afghan Jihad for US dollars. The Afghan Jihad was fought with American dollars and manpower from Pakistan and several other Muslim countries. The money was later pumped in from Saudi Arabia, which wanted to transform Pakistan into a Sunni Wahabi state. This programme of Saudi Arabia has been supported and implemented since days of Ziaul Haq and his followers and no government after that could understand the implications of this programme and continued to tolerate and support this programme. Since fighting Afghan Jihad brought in billions of dollars, and the generals, several army officers, mujahedeen and their trainers became billionaires over night. Thus jihad, forming a jihadi group, opening a madressah (religious seminary) or a mosque to preach and justify jihad and extremism and sectarianism became a lucrative business because it brought easy dollars from USA and Riyals from Saudi Arabia. Many young people were attracted to this business because it was a source of easy money and also youth dreamed of becoming the future Ameerul Momneen like Mullah Omar and other role models in this field. Also because media presented Ziaul Haq, Hamid Gul, Gen. Akhtar Abdul Rehman, and later Mullah Omar, Osama bin Laden as heroes of Islamic world. After the Afghan jihad the mujahedeen from other Arab countries were compelled to settle in Tribal areas of Pakistan because their mother countries did not want them back. For instance, after the withdrawal of the Russian armies from Afghanistan in 1989, the then Pakistani ambassador to Egypt was summoned by Hosni Mubarak and told that the Egyptian fighters should not come back to Egypt. Thus the mujahedeen purchased lands and got married to the girls of Pakistani tribal areas because people of tribal areas have tradition of selling their daughters. Being jobless, these mujahedeen turned their guns to Pakistan. Jihad and terrorism has become a kind of war economy, a kind of livelihood and way of life for many people because of lavish dollars and Riyals are involved. Afghan Jihad brought in so much money that families of Gen Ziaul Haq and Gen. Akhtar Abdur Rehman and many others became super rich. General Akhtar Abdur Rehman was given the title of Fateh-e-Afghanistan (the conqueror of Afghanistan). Thus easy money and shortcut to become an Ameerul Momneen (the Caliph of the Islamic world) is idealized by many Muslim young men. This caused a mushrooming of the jihadi groups. Those who do not get foreign or local funding through donations, have begun collecting forced taxes in the name of Taliban, kidnapping for ransom, and bank robberies.
F. Poverty & Unemployment: In Pakistan, 98 per cent economic resources are controlled by 2 per cent of population and rest of the 98 per cent population gets only 2 per cent of the wealth. Even the state budget allocation is so poor that 98% are spent on elite classes and only 2% are spent on social sector and most of those funds are also mismanaged and bungled. This situation leaves majority of the population destitute, hunger-stricken, and miserable. This situation becomes a fertile ground for religious parties to propagate that only Islamization and implementation of Nizam-e-Mustafa could provide economic, social and political justice to society. The poverty and employment is also a major cause for recruitment of youth by jihadi groups like Taliban, Sipah-e-Sahaba, Lashkar-e-Jhangavi and several others.
G. Social & Religious Factors: Pakistanis are so much divided on religious, sectarian, ethnic, regional etc. lines and could never become a nation, in fact they were never allowed to become a nation because hatreds on all these lines were intentionally promoted by ruling elite. The Indian and Pakistani societies have evolved in such a way that religion has always been part of social fabric and religion and politics could never be separated and the religious groups in India and Pakistan have become so strong that they will never be able to be controlled and religion and politics will never be able to be separated for many years to come. The religion and sectarian hatred becomes part of every person even before his/her birth. It is later further nurtured by parents and relatives, schooling and religious institutions.
G.1 Saudi funding for eliminating Shias: Saudi agenda of transforming Pakistan into a Wahabi Sunni State has been second major factor for promotion of religious and sectarian violence and terrorism. Hundred of thousands of religious seminaries were and are being set up in Pakistan to promote Sunnism and anti-Shia sectarianism and religious intolerance against non-Muslims. Many of these religious seminaries are reportedly involved in terrorist training and providing youth to Taliban, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi and other extremist, terrorist organizations. There have been cases wherein young boys were sold to terrorist organizations for RS.200,000/- to 300,000/-Recent attack on a Shia place of worship by Jaishul Islam has proved that most terrorist attacks are being carried out by extremist Sunni groups with Saudi money to eliminate Shias and non-Muslims from Pakistan. This attack has also proved the inherent weakness of the political system and state machinery to tackle the issue of terrorism. The so called Muslim brethren country none other than Saudi Arabia caused killings of thousands of Pakistani citizens with its Riyals, but never spent a single Riyal for the social, economic, and educational development of Pakistan. In fact, the Middle Eastern Sheikhs exploit Pakistani lands, forests and wild life and women for their enjoyments.
G.2 Iranian Support for Pakistani Shias: As a reaction to sectarian killings of Shias in Pakistani with the Saudi funding, Iran began supporting and financing the Pakistani Shias and they also began forming militant wings to revenge Shia killings. Thus Saudi Arabia and Iran were and are fighting their wars in Pakistan.
H. Implications: i. Corrupt ruling elite, especially politicians like Nawaz Sharif, Zardari and their cronies do not have the capacity, intention and political will to eliminate extremism and terrorism. If such people continue to rule the country, they will only loot peoples’ earnings and submerge the country under loans and internal war, and ultimate breakage of the country.
ii. The terrorists groups will become so strong that they will break the country into numerous pieces.
iii. If people do not become united and if they continue to hate one another on the religious, sectarian, and ethnic basis, then corrupt politicians will continue to loot national resources and terrorists will continue to give us dead bodies of our school children and citizens.
iv. Pakistan will have a fate worse than Afghanistan, which was divided into many pieces and was controlled by 32 warlords and all its institutions were totally destroyed and NATO Allies had to rebuild its police, army and other institutions from a scratch.
v. Religious extremism, militancy and terrorism could cause a full fledge third world war, and it will be also the last world war and then it will be the end of the human civilization.
vi. Using jihad to get the Kashmir issue resolved has caused severe losses to Pakistan and it has alienated itself from international community and lost many good friends in world community.
vii. With the present situation of terrorism Pakistan, does not need any external enemies because it has become self-sufficient in internal enemies. Around 15,000 Pakistanis were killed in wars with India, but Taliban and other jihadi and sectarian groups like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi and Sipah-e-Sahaba have killed more than 60,000 Pakistanis. So these groups, who claim to be the champions of Islam and much worse enemies of Pakistan and Pakistani people as compared to India.
viii. Pakistani people have become the biggest society of untouchables because no one is ready to come to Pakistan to play or invest. No tourist is ready to come to visit its beautiful landscape.
ix. Sectarianism has divided the politicians, bureaucracy, judiciary, lawyers, police etc. The officials do not want to take any action against the criminals who are their sectarian/religious brothers.
x. The terrorists have mass financial and moral support from within and outside the country, and many of the supporters of the terrorists are occupying top jobs and positions in government and state departments, therefore, there is no unified policy and efforts to fight terrorism.
xi. Every effort to reform state institutions, promote education and human rights for religious minorities, women and smaller sects of Muslims is labeled as a conspiracy against Islam and clergy starts crying that Islam is in danger.
xii. The society has internalized religious and sectarian violence and many support the agenda of the religious and sectarian terrorists of implementing Islam in Pakistan and all over the world by force.
xiii. Inter and Intra-Religious and sectarian violence and hatred is increasing all over the world and some so called intellectuals like Ooria Maqbool Jan (a columnist of Daily Express Pakistan) are motivating Muslims to fight the final battle against kaffirs (Christians, Hindus and Jews).
xiv: Until recently, Pakistanis had to offer prayers under security in their Churches, Mosques, Temples, and Imambargahs, and after the Peshawar School incident, the schooling of children is being done under security. Parents are scared to send their children to schools. Pakistan is spending a lot of funds and engaged its manpower for improving security of schools.
xv. Sectarian parties like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi and Sipahe-e-Sahaba are also active against Shias all over Pakistan and against Hazara Shia community in Quetta. Shias, Christians, Hindus and Ahmedis are living in constant fear. Ahmedis cannot even declare that they were Ahmedis. Talibanization has particularly threatened the lives and social development of women because Taliban have declared that the women rights and development and rights of minorities are Western Agendas and Taliban will not allow the implementation of Western agenda.
xvi. Pakistan has become one of the most dangerous countries to live in and according to some reports 50% of the people want to leave Pakistan.
I. Recommendations:
i. International community must resolve Kashmir and Palestine issues according to the desires of the Kashmiris and Palestinian people.
ii. All concerned must make efforts to rid the Pakistan of corrupt ruling elite because they have promoted terrorism and they corrupted every institution.
iii. Army is the only hope of the people of Pakistan because all other institutions were corrupted by politicians, and army is the only institution which has credibility and capacity to change situation. If Army does not help people of Pakistan to get rid of corrupt ruling elite, if army continues to be a quiet bystander and allows the loot and plunder by politicians and bureaucracy, if things do not change for better for people of Pakistan, then they will be so frustrated that they will pray for foreign invaders.
iv. Alternative programme of education, and social development has to be initiated so that every child could have an opportunity of decent education, every young man could get opportunities of healthy recreational activities and decent livelihood, so that unemployed youth is not used as a raw material for terrorism.
v. A long-term reform programme of changing the mindset through education, extra curricular activities, media, and religious institutions should be launched so that inter-faith harmony could be promoted.
vi. Persons promoting religious and sectarian hatred should be strictly punished.
vii. Pakistan must stop infiltration of Kashmir and control Lashkar-e-Tayyabah and get the Kashmir issue resolved with the international community instead of letting its foreign policy being controlled by jihadists.
viii. Pakistan also must stop thinking of having Afghanistan as its 5th province.
ix. Pakistan army must stop discriminating among good and bad Taliban both are equally dangerous for Pakistan and both need to be crushed.
x. All Jihadi, sectarian/religious, terrorist outfits must be crushed and forming a extremist outfits be declared to be punishable by death and Pakistanis must respect and support only Pakistan Army and hate all jihadist groups.
xi. Pakistan needs leadership which can rise above their financial and political vested interests, for, present leadership does not have guts, vision, and will to eliminate terrorism. Judiciary, lawyers, bureaucracy, politicians, Police, army, and other law enforcement agencies need to be cleansed off sympathizers of Taliban and other jihadi groups.
xii. Pro-life and pro-harmony verses of Koran and Hadith should be made part of the syllabus. For instance, a Hadith says: By God, the dignity of human life is much greater than the dignity of Kaaba.
xiii. Uneven development must be stopped and social development and industrial projects in neglected regions like South Punjab, Tharparkar and other urban and rural Sindh, and Baluchistan should be launched. Marginalized sectors of society be given decent livelihood and basic needs of life. Poverty should be abolished because many people are compelled to send their children to madressah for free food and residence.
xiv. International community must pressurize rulers of Muslim countries to improve educational, and living standards of people of their countries and give them social justice.
xv. Cases of war crimes be registered in the International Court of Justice against international donors of the Taliban and sectarian outfits like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi etc.
(The writer teaches social sciences and practices law in Pakistan. Email address: yunisadvocate@gmail.com).

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